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Boston Terrier HEALTH
Bostons Terriers really are healthy, sturdy, and vigorous as a breed. That said, all
breeds, even "
designer dogs" and mutts, carry genes for defects ranging from mild to
severe. The defects or imperfections may either show (dominant or expressed) or be
hidden (recessive or masked), but the genes are there whether you can see their effect
or not.  It's uncommon for breeders to speak much about problems in their breed,
especially with potential buyers. Every breed has fanciers claiming that breed to be
perfect for your next family pet. When the matter of breed defects or difficulties arises
some breeders either try to stick their heads in the sand.. or yours(!); others openly
want the puppy buyer to be well-informed and avoid unpleasant surprises.
The "natural" canine is a wolf type. People have bred progressively more extreme
deviations from wolf appearance over hundreds of years, one theory says in part to
avoid risk of confusion between dog and wolf (in the days when wolves were more of a
threat). An unwanted effect of these changes was certain health problems directly
related to our incredibly creative "remodeling".

SHORT NOSES
The adorable smushy-faced breeds that we find irresistable, have varying degrees of  
restricted airflow through their nasal passages and throat, resulting in impaired ability
to cool the body or in rare cases, even difficulty in getting enough oxygen.. This is true
for
all short nosed breeds (brachycephalics). Smushy-faced dogs need special
consideration due to these altered airways.. Respiratory difficulty of any kind requires
immediate attention. For unusually compromised breathing, there are surgeries to
open pinched nostrils (stenotic nares) and to minimize throat blockage from excess
soft tissue in the back of the mouth (elongated soft palate) giving more freedom of
breath. This is thankfully not often required.. Due to low heat tolerance, these dogs
must be watched carefully in hot weather. Finally it is important to find a  vet familiar with
the brachycephalic breed issues, also special care must be given when anaesthetizing
and intubating short nosed dogs.

ALLERGIES
Bostons Terriers, like many short-nosed breeds can be prone to skin allergies,
particularly in humid climates.  Fleas are the most common culprit.  Avoid oral or
injectable steroid treatments (topical is OK) for allergies if at all possible, since harmful
side effects come with prolonged use.  Benedryl-type antihistamines can be helpful if
started at first signs of itching and anti-inflamatories.
Always be prepared for insect bites. When any breed of dog gets an insect sting,
allergic swelling on the face or mouth may become life-threatening, airways can
become blocked. A bee sting kit or Benedryl-type antihistamine  on hand, (since severe
swelling may develop in just minutes), may save your dogs life, even while on the way
to the vet.

DEMODEX
Sometimes skin problems appear to be an allergy, but may actually be mange, or
mange and allergic response. Sarcoptic mange is highly contagious to dogs and
people, extremely itchy, and has no hereditary aspects.  Demodex, mostly
non-contagious, also called  "hereditary" mange, (mange mites are not genetic but
usually come from the mother's skin).  This type tends to not itch. It is most common in
pups under a year when their immune system is not fully developed, but can occur in
adults with other disease or stress . It appears as missing or thinning patch(es) of
hair.  These mites are present in the skin of most dogs (and many people), but cause
no trouble until the dog's body defenses become unbalanced from  various possible
causes.  Skin scrapings may turn up a few mites even on perfectly healthy dogs, or may
even not be found on an affected dog until multiple scrapings are done. If demodex is
localized (in small spots, not large areas) it is minor and even without treatment, tends
to resolve with maturity. Diet, vaccines, parasites, and emotional stress  can be
contributing causes, so must be first line of defense in treatment.  There are
differences of opinion about whether localized demodex is an ordinary event during
puppy development, or is a result of vaccinosis (vaccine-caused damage to immune
system) or is an indication of a genetic immune weakness and possibly poor breeding
material .
Generalized demodex
is extremely serious and does usually have genetic
involvelement. This form involves large areas of the body, usually with a mousey odor,
crusts, sores, thickening skin and thinning hair, it  indicates a weakness in the immune
system which may be from genetically poor health, underlying major illness such as
cancer or thyroid/hormone imbalance, extreme stress or all combined. Treatment is
typically Ivermectin, millbicyn, and/or amitraz (mitaban) dips for the mites, and
antibiotics/antifungals  for the bacteria and fungus that invade the mite-damaged skin.
There is a new and promising topical "spot-on" made by Bayer,  
"Advocate" claiming to
cure demodex.
Promeris is also potentially useful but has more side effects.  This is a
major, possibly life-saving breakthrough.  Many dogs are euthanized due to generalized
demodex.  Improve health, nutrition (high meat diet), reduce stress, and boost immune
system and that will get even faster results.   Natural "alternative medicine" treatments
sometimes are useful too. Dogs with the generalized form, the consensus is, should
not be bred.
Note: It is my opinion that Boston  puppies, as well as puppies of many other breeds,
(Min Pins, Dachsunds, Pugs, Pits, all "Bully" breeds to name a few )  are highly prone to
the localized form and simply outgrow it, often without the owner or breeder ever
noticing. I am inclined to believe from reviewing evidence, that vaccinosis (vaccine
induced immune system damage) and possibly diet, are prime contributing causes of
demodex in many breeds.  Fans of RAW feeding claim demodex clears up on raw
feeding but no research has been done yet.  Another alternative is treating with
homeopathic sulfur which has had some success.

STIFLES
Kneecaps (patellas) tend to be a weakness in all small breeds. The knee cap can slip
in and out if the groove is too shallow to keep the knee in place, OR if the ligament that
holds the knee is torn. Though very common, luxating patellas can go unnoticed if there
is no pain or apparent handicap. The family may not notice anything abnormal until the
vet finds the looseness or dislocation on a routine exam, or the dog hops or skips,
yelps and  holds a leg up now and then. Permanently dislocated knees often give the
rear-end a distinctly unnatural bowlegged look.  It can occur in degrees from mild to
severe, grade 1, 2 or 3.  Mild forms may never cause any trouble and rarely need
surgery. In more problematic cases the knee may suddenly go out causing the dog to
refuse to put any weight on the leg.  If it does not slip back into its groove it requires
immediate surgery. However, vets are often over-eager to do expensive stifle repair
when it is only the mild form with no handicap or pain. The surgery often needs to be
repeated and the added weight on the other leg while recuperating may cause the other
knee to dislocate. It is a good idea to get a second or third opinion prior to deciding to
have surgery.

EYES
Boston Terriers are one of the short nosed breeds which have rather large eyes. This
combination of lacking the nose length for protection and the large eyes, predisposes
Bostons and similar breeds (Peke, Shih-Tzu, Pug etc.) to eye injury. The Boston
Terrier's family needs to take this into account and protect their pet's eyes from injury as
much as possible. Hereditary "Juvenile" (can appear even in young puppies in contrast
to old age cataracts) cataracts are in the Bostons gene pool , but there is now a test for
the gene which will give breeders a tremendous advantage.   

DEAFNESS
Deafness is usually genetic. It is more common than we know since owners may not
notice anything wrong with dogs with only one deaf ear. There is a test to determine
normal hearing. Baer testing is simple and not too pricey. It isn't  available in some
areas.  There are antibiotics: gentamycin, lincomycin, which can cause deafness but it
is a less likely cause than genetics..  

SPINE
Short nose breeds often have a malformation of one or more vertebrae, called
hemivertebrae. This has recently even been found in wolves. As with many
abnormalities, it can cause no problems and go unnoticed unless spinal x-rays are
done for some other reason. It can however be a problem if there are too many
malformations or they are in a bad location on the spine.

WHELPING
Short-nosed  breeds with large heads have more  whelping difficulties  than "normal"
headed breeds. C-sections are not uncommon resulting in higher puppy losses.
Sections are very pricey, ranging from $500-$3000. These two facts of course results in
higher puppy prices.

MISCELLANEOUS
Health issues seen in many breeds are blindness, heart defect, bleeding disorder (von
wildebrand), liver shunt, epilepsy, and hip dysplasia. These illnesses and conditions
can sometimes affect Bostons too.  

YOUR PUPPY'S HEALTH,
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selecting a  veterinarian
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vomiting/ diarrhea
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