Dr. Schultz's complete article
(with reformatted tables) follows below.
Recent Advances in Canine Infectious Diseases,
Carmichael, L.(Ed.)
International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY
(www.ivis.org), 2000; A0110.0500
for Dogs (Last Updated: 5-May-2000)
(Please note the date, this is an
excellent article but not recent).

R. D. Schultz

During the past 50 years many vaccines have been developed to prevent
a variety of infectious diseases of dogs. Currently there are 16
canine vaccines licensed in the USA which are available commercially
(Table 1). Although a few of the vaccines are available as monovalent
products (e.g. rabies, canine parvovirus), most are available only as
multi-component products that contain between 2 to 10 components.
Some vaccines have had a profound effect by reducing, or eliminating,
diseases characterized by moderate to high morbidity and/or
mortality. However, other vaccines have had little or no recognized
beneficial effect because they were designed to prevent infections
that cause little or no morbidity and/or mortality. Some vaccines are
so new that the potential benefits they provide are not known e.g.,
Giardia, Leptospira (L.) grippotyphosa and L. pomona.

Table 1. List of the Licensed Canine Vaccines Available Commercially
in the United States 1.

Vaccines against viral diseases:
Canine Distemper Virus (MLV)
Canarypox-Distemper Virus (LRV)
Canine Distemper Virus/Measles Virus (MLV)
Canine Parvovirus-2 (MLV, K)
Canine Adenovirus-1 (K)
Canine Adenovirus-2 (MLV, K)
Canine Parainfluenza Virus (MLV)
Canine Coronavirus (MLV, K)
Rabies Virus (K)

Vaccines against bacterial diseases:
Bordetella bronchiseptica (MLV, K)
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme) (K, KR)
Leptospira canicola (K)
Leptospira grippotyphosa (K)
Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae (K)
Leptospira pomona (K)

Vaccine against a parasitic disease: (Giardia is a protozoan)
Giardia (K)

MLV = Modified Live Vaccine; KR= Killed Recombinant Vaccine;
K= Killed Vaccine; LRV = Live Recombinant Vaccine.
1 Only a few of these
vaccines are available as monovalent products. Almost all commercial
products contain two or more of these vaccines. The most common
multi-component product contain CDV, CPV-2, CAV-2, CPI, Leptospira
canicola, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. This product is often
referred to as a "7-way vaccine" because it should protect against
(CAV-2 and CAV-1) in addition to the other 5 components.

"Core" Vaccines
Canine vaccines which are considered essential, and should be given
to every dog, are termed "core vaccines". All other vaccines are
regarded as "non-core" and should be used in dogs considered at high
risk on an as needed basis. Core vaccines are considered essential
because they are designed to prevent important diseases that pose
serious health threats to susceptible dogs, irrespective of
geographic location or the life style of a dog. Some "non-core"
vaccines also may be considered "core" because they are designed to
prevent a disease that is a potential public health threat.
Efficacy and safety of a product are critical in deciding whether a
vaccine should be considered core. Diseases that pose a serious risk
to susceptible dogs, or to public health, which are readily
preventable by current vaccines include rabies, a major public health
disease caused by the rabies virus (RV); canine parvovirosis caused
by canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2); canine distemper caused by canine
distemper virus (CDV), and infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) caused
by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). ICH is effectively controlled by
canine adenovirus-2 (CAV-2) vaccine which has replaced CAV-1 vaccines
because it is much safer. As part of a minimum disease prevention
program, every dog should receive CPV-2, CDV, CAV-2 and rabies
vaccines at least one time at or after the age of 12 weeks (Table 2).
If that were the only vaccination a dog ever received, and the
products used were modified live CPV-2, CDV, CAV-2 and a 3-year
killed rabies, the dog would have a >80% probability of developing
immunity to those four viruses for 3 or more years.
Vaccination programs for highly contagious diseases are most
effective when all, or the highest percentage possible, of animals in
the population have been vaccinated. Therefore, every effort should
be made to ensure that as many dogs as possible over the age of 12
weeks are vaccinated with at least one dose of the four core

Table 2. Duration of Immunity and Efficacy for Canine Vaccines
Commercially Available in the United States.

Vaccine Minimum Duration Estimated Relative
of Immunity Efficacy

Canine Distemper 7 yr1 90
Canine Parvovirus-2 7 yr1 90
Canine Adenovirus-2 7 yr1 90
Rabies Virus 3 yr1 85

Canine Coronavirus "lifetime"3,5 ---
Canine Parainfluenza 3 yr1 80
Bordetella bronchiseptica <1 yr1,2 < 70
Leptospira canicola <1 yr2 < 50
Leptospira grippotyphosa <1 yr4 ---
Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae <1 yr2 < 75
Leptospira pomona <1 yr4 ---
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) 1 yr1 < 75
Giardia (prozoan parasite) <1 yr ---

1 Experimental challenge studies and/or serologic studies have been
performed. Field experience during outbreaks also confirm
experimental challenge studies. 2 Based on field experience and
observations from outbreak studies and clinical records. Reliable
experimental or controlled studies often not available. 3 Not
available; cannot be determined. CCV has not been shown to cause
significant disease. 4 Vaccines recently licenced; information not
available except from company data. 5 See text.

Minimum Disease Prevention
In the United States, which has the highest percentage of vaccinated
dogs, I estimate that less than 60% of all dogs receive the minimum
disease prevention vaccination program (Table 3). In many countries
less than 30% of dogs receive this one time vaccination with the four
core vaccines. Efforts to increase the percentage of vaccinated dogs will require a better understanding by
veterinarians and dog owners
of the importance, effectiveness and safety of this one time
vaccination program. In contrast to a minimum disease prevention
program, the vaccination programs for the majority of well cared for
pets are vaccination practices considered to provide "maximum disease
prevention". Thus, most pet dogs receiving routine veterinary care
are given the core vaccines several times; in addition, they
routinely receive several of the non-core vaccines. Based on a
national survey that we have done during the past 2 years, a majority
of veterinary practices began the puppy vaccination program at, or
shortly after, 6 weeks of age. The product used most often was a
multi-component vaccine containing CPV-2, CDV, CAV, canine
parainfluenza (CPI) virus, and L. canicola plus L. icterohemorrhagiae
bacterins. Approximately 50% of dogs received Canine Coronavirus
(CCV) in combination or as a separate vaccine. The pups were then
revaccinated 3 to 5 times with the same product at 2 to 4 week
intervals until they reach an age of 14 to 18 weeks. One dose of
rabies vaccine was given at 12 to 16 weeks of age. In approximately
25% of animals, two or more doses of an intranasal vaccine containing
Bordetella bronchiseptica (B. bronchiseptica) and CPI-virus was given
to pups before 18 weeks of age! Additionally, Lyme vaccine (Borrelia
burgdorferi) is sometimes included in the puppy program. In the
majority of practices, dogs would then be revaccinated with the
vaccines noted above at least annually for the remainder of their
lives. An exception to annual revaccination is rabies, which would be
given at 1 year of age, and then once every 3 years thereafter,
unless more frequent vaccination was required by law or believed
necessary by the veterinarian.

Table 3. Vaccination Programs for Dogs.

"Core" Vaccines
(Every Dog Needs)
Program A - Minimal Approach
Primary Immunization at 12 weeks or older
- Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)
- Canine
Distemper Virus (CDV)
- Canine
Adenovirus (CAV-2) and Rabies Virus
Note: Canine
Parainfluenza (CPI) will have to be included since there
are no products with CPV-2, CDV and CAV-2 without CPI.
Rabies - 1 year after primary, then once every 3 years.
Other vaccines would not be given again.

Program B - Moderate Approach
Primary Immunization
- 6 to 9 weeks - Parvo-2 + Distemper
- 1
2 to 15 weeks - Rabies, Parvo-2 + Distemper + Adenovirus -2 + Parainfluenza*
1 Yr. later - repeat above *  then again every
3 years for rabies; every 3 -5 years for other vaccines. *See note
under Program A

Program C -
Maximal Approach
Primary Immunization
6 to 8 weeks - Parvo-2 +Distemper
- 9 to 11 weeks - repeat above + Adenovirus-2 + Parainfluenza*
- 12 to 14 weeks -  repeat all  of above (CPV-2 + CDV + CAV-2 + CPI)
- 1 Yr  repeat all: (CPV-2 + CDV + CAV-2 + CPI* + Rabies).
- 3 Yr repeat all (CPV-2 + CDV + CAV-2 + CPI* + Rabies).
*See note under Program A

"Non-Core" Vaccines
(Give only if the dog is at high risk and then only the vaccine that
is needed)

Program D -
Minimal Approach
Give only "core" vaccines ("Non-core" vaccines are not given!)

Program E -
Moderate Approach
Primary Immunization
6 weeks of age, or older - 1 dose of intranasal B. bronchiseptica +
Parainfluenza (CPI*)
- 12 week and 14 to 15 weeks - 2 doses of Leptospira bacterin (2- or
- Annually - Leptospira bacterin + intranasal B. bronchiseptica + CPI*
*See note under Program A

Program F -
Maximal Approach
Primary Immunization
6 to 14 weeks of age - 2 doses Intranasal B. bronchiseptica + CPI*
- 9 to 11 weeks and 12 to 14 weeks - Leptospira bacterin
or 4-serovars)
9 to 11 and 12 to 14 weeks - 2 doses Lyme disease vaccine
- 6 to 8 weeks and 9 to 11 weeks - 2 doses Giardia vaccine
*See note under Program A
Annually with intranasal B. bronchiseptica and CPI
- At least annually with Leptospira bacterin (2-serovars or
Lyme vaccine - annually, a few months prior to peak tick season
- Omit Giardia vaccine


When Canine Parvovirus is a serious threat:
- CPV-2 monovalent MLV product starting at 5 weeks of age then giving
the product every other week
until 15 weeks of age. A more reliable
program would be to determine antibody titers to CPV-2 and vaccinate
pups when CPV-2 antibodies no longer interfere with immunization.
When Canine
Distemper is a serious threat:
- Measles virus - CDV combination at 4 to 6 weeks of age; then a
product containing
CDV without MV at 12 weeks of age or older.
Program A, B, or C for "core" products can be matched with any of the
"non-core" product programs D, E, or F. Therefore, Program A can be
matched with D (no "non-core" product given) or with F, where any of
the non-core vaccines needed could be given and given again annually
for dogs at high risk.
Vaccination more often than listed in C and F
should rarely, if ever, be done.

Considering the difference between the minimum disease prevention
program that protects >80% of dogs from the important canine diseases
and the program described above, it is not surprising that neither
the dog-owning public nor veterinarians appreciate the exceptional
benefit derived from the "minimum disease prevention program".
Why are there significant differences in number of doses and
components of vaccines routinely given in the maximum vs. minimum
disease prevention programs? Those differences arise primarily from
misperceptions about how vaccines work, which vaccines are necessary,
and how often vaccines should be given during the life of the dog to
provide protective immunity.

Common Questions Regarding Vaccines/Vaccination

  • At what age should the vaccination program begin?

  • How often does a dog need to be revaccinated? (What is the duration
of immunity?)

  • How does one determine the risk of disease, and therefore the
necessity for one or more of the "non-core" vaccines?

  • How effective are the vaccines?

  • Do all current vaccines for a given disease provide similar

  • What are the risks of causing adverse reactions with certain vaccines
  • or when giving vaccines too often?

Those questions are being asked more now than in the past since most
vaccine experts, and many dog owners, believe that certain vaccines
are given too often and some are unnecessary. Answers to the above
questions are complex and depend on the needs of a particular animal
as well as the expectations of the owner and veterinarian. [1-5].

At What Age and Which Vaccines to Use?
Unfortunately, simple and universally agreed on answers are not
available. Most experts agree that puppy vaccination programs should
begin at 6 to 9 weeks of age; the first puppy vaccination should
begin prior to 6 weeks of age only in special situations, e.g.,
humane shelters. Vaccination at less than 6 weeks of age is often not
effective due to interference of vaccinal immunity by passively
acquired antibodies and, rarely (e.g. <2 weeks of age), inability of
a pup's immune system to respond effectively to the vaccine. Ideally,
pups should be kept in a clean environment prior to vaccination and
have no, or minimal, contact with dogs other than the dam and
littermates. The first and second doses of vaccine in a puppy series
optimally includes only the
CPV-2 and CDV components. Those are the
most important vaccines for a pup less than 12 weeks of age because
parvovirus and canine distemper are the two most serious
infectious diseases of dogs.
CPV-2 is now the most important vaccine in the USA since pups are
most likely to encounter this virus because of its high prevalence
and environmental stability. When
CDV is a major threat to young
pups, as in known distemper-infected kennels or humane shelters, the
most effective product is the combined measles virus
vaccine. This product can be used in pups as young as 4 weeks of age
when necessary. When
MV-CDV is used, revaccination should be done
with a
CDV product that does not contain MV. After 9 weeks of age,
the vaccine regimen should include a rabies vaccine (12 weeks or
older) and multi-component vaccines (
CPV-2, CDV and CAV). All current
commercial products also contain
CPI virus, however, CPI is not
needed in the parenteral vaccine since it is often given and is more
effective when given intranasally in combination with
Intranasal products are available which contain CAV-2
in addition to
B. bronchiseptica and CPI. Use of the three-way
intranasal product would eliminate the need to give CPI and
Leptospira bacterins, if needed, should ideally be given at 9 weeks
of age or older. Leptospira bacterins require two doses of vaccine
which should be given at intervals of 2 to 4 weeks between doses.
Multiple doses of modified live viral vaccines are generally required
only in pups less than 12 weeks of age because after this age
passively acquired antibodies from the dam have usually declined
below levels which prevent successful immunization. When
MLV vaccines
are given to pups that have lost their passively acquired antibody
(~12 weeks of age), a single dose of vaccine can immunize. Multiple
doses are required for primary vaccination with certain killed
vaccines (e.g.
Leptospira spp., Lyme disease) but single doses are
sufficient when revaccinating at a later time, usually at 1 year. Due
to improvements in multi-component core vaccines, especially the
CPV-2 component, and the lower antibody titers of dogs in vaccinated
populations it is no longer necessary to administer vaccines through
the age of 18 to 20 weeks. Previous recommendations for the last dose
of vaccine at 18 or 20 weeks were made in the 1980's and early '90's
CPV-2 vaccines failed to immunize a high percentage of pups
even when passively acquired antibody titers were well below the
level of antibody that provided protection from infection with
virulent virus. [3,6] Also at that time, a large proportion of dogs
had antibodies recently engendered by virulent virus, rather than
vaccines. The "window of vulnerability" ("critical period" - see
Canine Parvovirus, U. Truyen, In: Recent Advances in Canine
Infectious Diseases, L.E. Carmichael (Ed.), IVIS, Ithaca, NY - Doc.
No. A0106.0100), was as long as several months when certain of the
CPV-2 vaccines were used! However, with the improved CPV-2
vaccines now available from the major vaccine manufacturers, the
"window of vulnerability" has been reduced to 2 weeks, or less. It
is, therefore, not necessary to vaccinate pups beyond 12 to 14 weeks
of age. The other core vaccine components also will immunize a
majority of dogs when the last dose is given at 12 to 14 weeks of
age. [6-8].

How Often to Vaccinate?
Repeated vaccinations with multi-component vaccines need not be
repeated at intervals more often than every 2 to 4 weeks in a puppy
program. Two to three doses of vaccine should be adequate to immunize
when vaccination is started at 6 to 9 weeks. The most important
aspect of a puppy vaccination program is to make certain that the
last dose of vaccine in the series is given when the animal is at
least 12 to 14 weeks of age. However, as mentioned above, pups often
receive 4 to 6 doses of the same multi-component vaccine during the
first 3?-?4 months of life. The higher number of doses may be
justified for animals in humane shelters, commercial kennels, or
other areas where animals are at high risk. However, pet dogs in a
single or multi-dog household are at low risk of exposure to most
diseases. Such animals would not need to be revaccinated every 2
weeks and they should never be vaccinated every week, as practiced in
the USA by some breeders and veterinarians. Furthermore, if a dog is
at high risk of exposure to an important disease like
CPV-2, a
CPV-2 vaccine is recommended, not a multi-component
product . The risk of adverse reactions has been greater with
multi-component vaccines.

Expected Immunization Success
Since passively acquired antibody declines below the level where it
can interfere with the current core vaccines by 12 to 14 weeks of
age, modified live
CPV-2, CDV and CAV vaccines given at this age will
immunize a very high percentage of pups (>90%) and the immunity from
that single dose of vaccine will last for several years. Our research
on duration of immunity for the
CPV-2, CDV and CAV vaccines has
demonstrated a minimum duration of immunity of 7 years; the maximum
duration of immunity may be for the life of most (>80%) vaccinated
animals. Many killed rabies vaccines have a minimum duration of
immunity of 3 years. However, a small percentage of pups (<5%) fail
to develop immunity to one or more of the core components and a much
higher percentage of pups (>25%) fail to develop immunity to certain
of the non-core vaccines for a variety of reasons. Reasons which have
been given include: The presence of passively acquired antibody at
time of last vaccination; delay in maturation of the immune system;
poor vaccinal immunogenicity; vaccine not given often enough; genetic
inability to respond to certain vaccine antigens; immunosuppression;
too many components in a multi-component vaccine; or ineffective lots
of vaccine. [9, 10].
To ensure that all pups become immune, one dose of rabies vaccine is
given at 12 weeks of age or older, followed by a second dose 1 year
later, or at 1 year of age. Revaccination is then done at 3 year
intervals. Similarly the
CPV-2, CDV and CAV vaccine could be given at
1 year and then every 3 to 5 years without concern about loss of
immunity. There is no evidence, or reason, to believe that
revaccination with the core vaccines more often than recommended
above would provide more effective protection from the important
diseases since the minimum duration of immunity from the core
vaccines is at least 3 years. States in the USA which require annual
revaccination for rabies should remove those requirements because
annual revaccinations are unnecessary. Vaccinating the same animal
less often also would reduce the risk of adverse reactions. In areas
where there is a high risk of rabies, programs must be developed to
immunize those dogs that have never been vaccinated or have not been
vaccinated within the past 3 or more years. Unvaccinated dogs pose
the greatest threat for the transmission of rabies virus, not dogs
which have been previously vaccinated or, especially, those
vaccinated within the past 3 years. In our studies, pups vaccinated
annually with modified live
CPV-2, CDV and CAV vaccines received no
added benefit from annual revaccination throughout a period of 7
years when compared to dogs that were vaccinated as pups then
challenged with virulent virus at 7 years of age. Both groups of dogs
were protected from challenge infection with
CPV-2, CDV and/or CAV.
Therefore, for those vaccines that provide immunity for 3 or more
years, I believe that annual revaccination is
contraindicated - the
increased risk of adverse reactions from revaccination provides
In contrast, use of those products which provide only a
short duration of immunity (~1 year) requires annual, or even more
frequent, vaccinations - but only with products that contain vaccine
components that are needed in a particular region (e.g. Leptospira or
Lyme disease bacterins), not with multi-component products containing
unnecessary vaccines.

"Non-Core" Vaccines: Which are Needed and When?
Which "non-core" vaccines are really needed? This question is
difficult to answer and depends on the animal and its environment.
Leptospira bacterins?-?The most important "non-core" vaccine is for
leptospirosis since this infection can cause mild to severe illness
and it is a zoonosis. The question could be asked why
bacterins are not included as "core" vaccines? The principal reason
concerns vaccine efficacy - a high percentage of vaccinated dogs do
not develop protective immunity, or they develop immunity for only a
short duration of time. Until recently, bacterins contained only two
serovars (L. canicola and L. icterohaemorrhagiae) and cross
protection between leptospiral serovars does not occur. Furthermore,
the Leptospira sp bacterins are among the more reactogenic components
in multi-component vaccines. Clinically, immediate and/or chronic
immune-mediated reactions have been observed and, experimentally,
multiple types of immune mediated hypersensitivities have been
induced with leptospiral antigens. Moreover, Leptospira bacterins do
not prevent infection or shedding of the organisms in the urine, even
when they reduce or eliminate the clinical signs of disease. Thus,
the public health threat from organisms being shed in the environment
persists. Finally, Leptospira bacterins are not considered "core
vaccines" because leptospirosis is rare in many geographic regions of
the USA and few or no clinical cases have occurred for many years.
Very recently, new vaccines have been licensed in the USA that
contain L. grippotyphosa and L. pomona. The new vaccines should
provide broader immunity and, hopefully, will prevent disease caused
by those serovars. However, the new vaccine containing the four
serovars requires evaluation in a large number of dogs before it is
known whether it will reduce the incidence of canine leptospirosis in
endemic areas and if adverse reactions are worse than those caused by
current products which contain only 2 serovars. According to our recent survey on vaccination programs,      
approximately 30% of veterinary practices do not vaccinate for leptospirosis. The
responding practitioners either didn't believe that leptospirosis was
a significant problem in their area or the vaccine containing L.
canicola and L. icterohaemorrhagiae serovars failed to provide
protection. Also, there were concerns about adverse reactions when
the current products were used. Approximately 50% of the
veterinarians completing the survey must have felt leptospirosis was
a significant problem since they vaccinated >75% of the dogs with the
products containing L. canicola+icterohemorrhagiae. According to our
survey Leptospira bacterins were used in more dogs than any of the
other "non-core" vaccines except CPI.
parainfluenza and B. bronchiseptica?-?CPI is included as a
component of all current parenteral vaccines containing CDV, CPV-2
and CAV; therefore, it is given to every dog that receives the core
vaccine. Approximately 80% of practices surveyed vaccinated less than
50% of dogs with B. bronchiseptica. The product used most often for
kennel cough was an intranasal vaccine that contained both B.
bronchiseptica and CPI. Many non-vaccinated dogs never develop
"kennel cough" or they develop mild, self-limiting disease; however,
other dogs, both vaccinated and non-vaccinated, developed severe,
protracted kennel cough requiring treatment. Efficacy of the present
kennel cough vaccines is controversial (see: Canine Respiratory
Bordetellosis, D. Keil and B. Fenwick, In: Recent Advances in Canine
Infectious Diseases, L.E. Carmichael (Ed.), IVIS, Ithaca, NY - Doc.
No. A0104.0100) and duration of immunity, if present, would be less
than 1 year. Ventilation and hygiene are important in environments
where kennel cough is prevalent. In certain kennels, improvement in
ventilation has eliminated or reduced the need for kennel cough
vaccines. Also, in some environments vaccination at intervals as
frequent as every 3 to 6 months failed to significantly reduce
respiratory disease.
Coronavirus vaccines?-? Although approximately 50% of practices
routinely use coronavirus vaccine, most vaccine experts agree that
this vaccine is not needed. Some experts consider CCV vaccines
useless. Clinical disease rarely occurs with CCV infection and when
disease does occur it is usually mild, self-limiting and most
commonly seen in pups less than 8 weeks of age?-?an age which is
earlier than vaccine would provide benefit. Based on our observations
that the preponderance of clinical cases caused by CCV occur in young
pups, any "protection" derived from vaccination of pups or from
natural infection would, in the practical sense, last a lifetime.
Furthermore, CCV alone has not been shown to experimentally cause
significant disease in susceptible dogs. The demonstration that CCV
can enhance the severity of disease caused by CPV-2, does not suggest
a need for CCV vaccine since dogs vaccinated with CPV-2 vaccine only,
are completely protected when co-infected with a combination of CCV
and CPV-2. [6] CCV vaccine alone provided no protection for dogs
challenged with a combination of CCV and CPV-2.
Lyme Disease Vaccine?-?This vaccine should be used only in areas
where Lyme disease is known to occur, and where it may pose a serious
threat to the health of the dog. Even in areas where Lyme disease has
been shown to be endemic, and where infection with Borrelia
burgdorferi is common, clinical illness is rare. When seen, it is
often mild and readily treated with antibiotics. In certain highly
endemic areas where infection of the natural vectors (mice and deer)
is almost 100%, disease in dogs may be more common, and sometimes
severe, but cases are responsive to antibiotic treatment.
After the release of the first human Lyme disease vaccine, a segment
of the human population with a particular human leukocyte antigen
type, determined by genetics, was found at increased risk to
developing chronic arthritis after vaccination with the Lyme vaccine.
This finding should signal caution in the over use of canine Lyme
vaccine since a similar phenomenon may occur in dogs. Lyme disease
vaccine, if used, should be given only to dogs that are truly at very
high risk of infection/disease.
Giardia vaccine?-?This relatively new product may be valuable in a
highly specialized market, mainly in larger breeding kennels which
whelp and raise many puppies. It is unlikely to provide benefit as a
routine vaccine. The effectiveness and safety of the Giardia vaccine
in those special situations where it is used remains to be
determined. Use of this vaccine would likely play an insignificant
role in reducing the public health concerns of human Giardia

Adverse Reactions
The risks of adverse reactions from vaccines are not well studied,
nor are the adverse reactions rates well documented. Even where
documented, the information is not readily available. The immune
mediated hypersensitivities caused by vaccines are well known and
occur in every species [4,10,11]. The most commonly observed
hypersensitivity is a type I (immediate) reaction which is most often
caused by IgE antibody resulting in a local or generalized
anaphylaxis. The most common signs of local reactions are facial
edema, hives, itching and rarely sneezing; signs of a systemic
reaction include urination,
vomiting, diarrhea, which is sometimes
dyspnea and collapse. According to a recent survey we have
conducted, the most common vaccination reactions observed in dogs
pain, soreness, stiffness and/or lethargy at variable times
after vaccination.
Swelling, a persistent lump, irritation, hair loss
and/or color change of hair at site of injection were also observed
as common reactions. A change of behavior was reported in a small percentage of dogs after vaccination. Post-vaccinal
neurologic disease (e.g. encephalitis) was rare. All of the reactions noted
above generally occur within minutes, hours or days after
vaccination; they were, therefore, likely to have been associated
with a vaccination. More recently, it has been shown experimentally
that dogs develop an autoimmune response after vaccination, something
that was known to occur in other species [11].  Furthermore, a study of dogs in veterinary clinics showed a slight
increase in cases of
autoimmune hemolytic anemia within 30 days
following vaccination with multi-component vaccines [12]. It is very
difficult to document a "cause and effect" relationship between
vaccination and disorders occurring weeks to months after
vaccination, but it would not be unexpected for vaccines to trigger
immune-mediated disease (including autoimmune disorders) in a small
percentage of animals [4, 5, 11,12].
Adverse reactions from vaccines
should not be used as a reason not to vaccinate; instead, it is
sensible not to use vaccines which are unnecessary, or to vaccinate
more often than needed.
In general, bacterial vaccines are more
likely to cause immune-mediated reactions than do viral vaccines.
Killed vaccines,
especially those which contain adjuvants, are more
likely to cause adverse reactions than do modified live vaccines.
Because immune mediated reactions are genetically determined, some
breeds, especially certain families of dogs, are at much greater risk
of developing adverse reactions than the canine population as a whole.
Considerations in Designing Effective and Safe Vaccination Programs
Best Vaccine Program/Protocol: Keep your dog safe and healthy, protected from parvo and distemper,
the most deadly dog diseases. Avoid serious harm, damage and immune system risk by avoiding  
dangerous, most commonly used veterinary vaccination methods. Give your vet a copy of DR Schultz's
paper, ask for Schultz's reccomended programs most suited to your dog's needs, risk factors age, and
likely exposure hazards.